October is the month when production of greenhouse tomatoes, aubergines and peppers usually comes to an end. With falling temperatures and longer nights, growth is slowing down and your plants will be less able to ripen fruit. Remove all flowers as they are unlikely to set usable fruit in time for them to ripen this late. Thin out some of the fruits already set, especially the smaller ones. Stop shoots from growing any more by cutting off their tips. The above actions divert all the plants’ resources into filling the remaining fruit, so you get bigger, riper, tastier fruit instead of many small unripe ones. Do this earlier or later depending on your location and how mild the autumn is.
With the rising humidity, disease control becomes more important by the day. So make sure to remove any dead leaves, spent plants, weeds, rubbish and dropped fruits from the greenhouse. Open the vents or doors on sunny mornings, but close them up earlier in the evening before it gets too cold. Feeding should have ended in September, and watering should be reduced to match the plants’ lower needs. As a rule of thumb, don’t water until the soil surface is dry. Avoid wetting the leaves.
By about mid-October it can be too cold to ripen tomatoes well. If so pick all the fruit and ripen them indoors in a dark, airy cupboard. Don’t leave them on a sunny windowsill: if they once get heated above 35°C (95°F) the red pigment is destroyed and they stay pale and blotchy. Some people put a ripe apple or banana with them to speed up ripening with the ethylene gas it gives off. Remove plants when their fruits are all picked, and clean up the greenhouse for the winter.
Grey mould is a common disease of greenhouse plants in late summer and autumn. The key to controlling it is knowing how it lives and ensuring that it doesn’t get a grip. It is a fungus disease, caused by several different Botrytis species. The commonest one in greenhouses is Botrytis cinerea, which attacks unhealthy, dead or dying plant tissues. If that was all it did, it would be little trouble to growers and just another useful organism recycling our plant wastes into compost. But when established on dead or wounded plant parts it then attacks the neighbouring healthy tissues, killing them back too. It produces a forest of tiny hair-like stems on the surface of the plant, each one ending in a capsule of microscopic dust-like spores. This is the visible ash-grey mould. When you disturb the plant, the capsules release clouds of spores to attack more plants. Some land on tomato fruits where they fail to penetrate unbroken skin and die out, leaving ‘ghost spots’ with white edges and almost transparent centres. Affected tomatoes are edible but don’t look attractive.
Control the fungus by denying it food. Dead-head plants often and remove dying or infected leaves, stems and fruits right away. Never leave fallen fruits on the ground. Water regularly to reduce leaf die-back and fruit splitting. Reduce humidity by ventilating well, thinning out dense foliage, spacing plants further apart, removing weeds and watering only in the morning so plants and the ground surface will be dry all night. Feed plants less nitrogen (which encourages soft, sappy, disease-prone growth) and more potash (which encourages slower, harder, disease-resistant growth). Prune and de-leaf plants in the mornings so the wounds dry off before night. Disinfect the greenhouse and dig over the soil in winter to reduce resting spores.
Pelargoniums (geraniums) are easy to grow from cuttings whenever the plants are growing, but easiest in late summer. Fill a pot with seed compost and moisten it by standing it in water for a while. Then let the surplus water drain away. Choose your healthiest, most vigorous pelargonium plants for cuttings. Non-flowering stems are best because flowers give off hormones that inhibit root growth, but if you have to use flowering stems remove any flowers and flower-buds. Stout stems grown in good light are better than spindly stems grown in poor light; a few weeks on greenhouse staging can produce good stems.
Cut the chosen stems below the third node (joint) from the top. Cut off all but the top leaves, insert them into the pot leaving one node and the top leaves showing and firm them in gently to ensure good contact between the cutting and the compost. Place the pot in a warm bright spot out of direct sun. Don’t cover it as dampness can rot the cuttings. For the same reason, water it only from below by standing the pot in water for a while and letting it drain as before. Remove any cuttings that start to rot. Plant out the rooted cuttings when new leaves appear on them: let them recover where they were until growth starts again before placing them in full sun.
Looking forward to seeing new and existing customers at this years Bloom Show which starts this Thursday and runs until bank holiday Monday. Our stand is in the same place as the last two years, OR39.
Bloom is regarded as a great day out for all the family, and it looks as though we will be blessed with fine weather (God willing).
This year we will have a lovely Janssens Helios Orangery Greenhouse on show which can also be used as a Garden Room and will be an attractive feature in any Garden. It is a big Greenhouse at 3.92m x 4,76m, it is 2m high at the sides. The kit starts off in price at 6,770 euro.
Congratulations to our Happy Couple Marilyn O’Connor and Paulus Ungerechts who bought a Polytunnel from us this Spring and when the venue for their wedding reception ceased trading unexpectedly they improvised and used their Polydome Tunnel as the venue!
Here is a link to the story in the Irish Independent yesterday. Irish Independent Story
Very appropriate too as Polydome was founded on Saint Valentines Day 1985!
For a successful crop of greenhouse tomatoes you need to get the planting right. The plants should be a healthy green colour and not yellow (due to lack of feed and/or water) nor purplish (due to chilling), nor lanky and spindly (due to lack of light). Plant them out when the first flowers are opening. From then on plants will need more food and more room for their roots to forage for it.
The greenhouse soil is the easiest and cheapest to plant into but you can’t keep planting tomatoes (or any other crop) in the same soil every year as pest, disease and mineral problems will build up. Change the soil for fresh soil from outside the greenhouse, or move the plants around a large greenhouse each year, or use grow-bags.
Traditional vine tomatoes grow straight up to head height or more and can be spaced only 45cm /18” apart. Bush tomatoes need less headroom but much more space between them. Keep any seed packets or labels for guidance.
You need canes or twines to support vine tomatoes. Canes are easier to use but must be inserted before putting in the plants to avoid damaging their roots. Strings are simpler at first, but as you twine them around the growing plants they may need to be slackened at the top so use a shoelace knot and leave extra twine on the end.
Water the plants well before putting them in, and again after planting. Make sure the soil around the root ball is wet so the roots can grow into it: greenhouse borders can become very dry. Leave the plants slightly below the surrounding soil so water poured onto the bases of the plants won’t roll away from them.
When seeds have been sown and germinated in a seed tray, the process of separating the tiny plants and transplanting them into individual pots or containers is pricking out. It’s an essential skill for greenhouse users who raise plants from seed. Do it as soon as the seed-leaves on the new plants are opened out fully: delaying longer allows their roots to intertwine so that separating the plants damages them more severely. Fill compost loosely into the containers to be planted up. Level it but don’t firm it down. Using an old teaspoon, a metal tag or similar, dig under a seedling from the side as you lift it by one of its seed-leaves. Lower the roots down into a hole punched in the centre of the potting mixture in the target container and tap the container to level the compost around it. Firm it gently with your fingertips and water it. Set it somewhere warm, sheltered and out of direct sun until the plant recovers from the shock of transplanting and starts growing again.
Avoid sowing seed too thickly in seed-trays, as the seedlings end up too close together for easy pricking out Do as little damage to roots as you can while pricking out so the plants will recover and grow faster. Always hold seedlings by one seed-leaf and never by their stems: stems are much easier to crush than leaves and a plant with one damaged leaf still has another.
If a seed-tray is too congested because of sowing thickly or delayed pricking out, all is not lost. You can still cut the solid block of root-bound compost into squares, pot up each square and reduce the plants in each to one by snipping out the rest.
The newest addition to our display area in Birr is this lovely Junior Orangery Glasshouse from Janssens. Using ‘box section’ aluminium profiles and 4mm toughened glass this greenhouse is good and strong. The protruding Porch makes for a lovely and unusual feature in the garden. It comes in black only – or as Henry Ford said about the Model T car – every colour you want so long as it is black. The Junior Orangery measures 3.14m x 3.96m giving room for a the essential table and chairs to relax in along with some plants to talk to and enjoy 🙂 The price for this impressive Greenhouse is only 3,515 euro as a DIY kit, we do offer a construction service the price for which varies with location – please enquire for a price if you are not DIY inclined. We need a flat and level base (or flat and level lawn) to be in situ before we arrive to build it. You are welcome to come and see this and other models at our display area in Birr.
If you like your early potatoes early and you have enough room, why not plant some in your greenhouse in January? They could be ready for harvesting as soon as May. Yields can be modest, but the flavour of fresh early potatoes is unbeatable. Choose seed potatoes of an early variety, and stand them on a warm bright windowsill indoors to start sprouting. Keep the eyes facing upwards so the emerging shoots will be straight and tall.
When the sprouts are about five centimetres tall plant the seed potatoes in the greenhouse, either in the ground or in large pots. Some compost or well-rotted manure could be added to the soil, but not too much if slugs are a problem. When planting take care to trickle soil gently down between the sprouts to avoid damaging them. Some growers who use pots plant the seed potatoes in half-filled pots and add more soil as the sprouts grow up, always leaving their tips exposed to the light to speed up growth.
Keep the soil moist but not wet, ventilate the greenhouse (or bring pots outside) on warm days, and protect the plants from frost and slugs. Add soil around the bottoms of the stems to stop light from greening potatoes near the surface. You can start eating the potatoes when flowering is over, but the potatoes will continue growing bigger until the foliage dies down. They taste best when freshly dug, so unless you need the space or have a slug problem dig them only as you need them. Bon appétit!
Horticulturalist Peter Whyte gives some advice on protecting Greenhouses.
Sheltering a greenhouse from strong winds reduces damage, but if not done properly it can do more harm than good. A solid barrier such as a wall stops the wind dead in its tracks, but the air pressure that builds up in front of that wall turns the wind up and over the top and around the ends or corners. The diverted wind adds to the wind already passing by, increasing the wind speed there. And because the wind pressure increases as the square of the wind speed, it greatly increases its force and the damage it causes. To make matters worse the airstream passing over or around a solid barrier creates a vacuum behind it that causes violent turbulence, which further increases damage.
The trick is to create a permeable barrier, with holes to let some of the high-pressure air from in front pass through it and fill the vacuum behind. This eliminates the turbulence and continues straight on but at a lower speed, pushing up the high-speed airstream coming over the top of the barrier. The average wind speed is reduced by half for a distance of ten times the barrier’s height downwind, but also for twice its height upwind because some of the airstream is diverted upwards before it reaches the barrier (so you can place a barrier close behind a greenhouse to avoid blocking the sun).
The ideal windbreak is about 50-60% solid and 40-50% holes. A hedge like that would be transparent enough to let you see cattle through it but dense enough to prevent you counting them. Artificial barriers can be made with walls of concrete screen blocks or solid concrete blocks spaced apart, or purpose-made plastic screening such as ParafenceTM fixed to posts.